Botanical name: Piper Nigrum L (family: Piperaceae)
Pepper comes from several species of a vinous perennial climber, which thrives best in humid rainy tropical regions. The spice is the fruit, called peppercorns.
Pepper is known for its spicy aroma and hot pungent taste. It is present as bunch on a spike. As it matures the berry first grows into a sphere of 4 mm, deep green in color due to the chlorophyll on the outer layer of the skin. At full maturity the green color turns into red.
A fresh pepper berry consists of a hard core and a softer outer rim. To produce green pepper, the berries are plucked when they have not yet fully matured and obtained their green skin. Instead of being sun dried to produce black pepper the berries are blanched in hot water, which kills the enzyme that would cause the berry to turn black. After the blanching the green berries are dehydrated. Alternatively, the green berries can be canned by pickling in brine.
Green pepper is mainly produced in India.